Do All Birds Lay Unfertilized Eggs?

If you woke up this morning wondering if all birds lay unfertilized eggs, you’re not alone. Many people are curious about the egg-laying habits of our feathered friends. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore the answer to this question in detail.

If you’re short on time, here’s a quick answer: Not all birds lay unfertilized eggs. Most birds do lay unfertilized eggs as part of their normal reproductive cycle. However, some species of birds, like chickens, quail and turkeys, do not lay unfertilized eggs regularly.

What Are Unfertilized Eggs?

An unfertilized egg, also known as an infertile egg, is an egg that has not been fertilized by a male bird’s sperm. In most bird species, females lay eggs whether or not they have mated with a male. The purpose of laying unfertilized eggs varies among different bird species, and it is important to understand the biology behind this phenomenon.

Definition and Purpose

Unfertilized eggs are eggs that have not undergone the process of fertilization, where a sperm cell penetrates and combines with the egg cell to initiate embryo development. Female birds have the ability to produce eggs without the presence of a male, as their reproductive system is designed to produce eggs periodically.

The purpose of laying unfertilized eggs can vary depending on the species. For some birds, such as domestic chickens, the primary purpose of laying unfertilized eggs is for reproduction. These eggs are typically collected for human consumption and are commonly found in grocery stores.

However, not all birds lay unfertilized eggs for reproduction. In some bird species, females may lay unfertilized eggs as a form of practice or preparation for potential future breeding. This allows them to become familiar with the process of laying eggs and ensures that they are ready for fertilization when the opportunity arises.

What Happens Inside an Unfertilized Egg

When a female bird lays an unfertilized egg, the egg itself contains a yolk, albumen (egg white), and a protective shell. However, without fertilization, the egg will not develop into an embryo. Instead, it will remain in its unfertilized state.

Inside an unfertilized egg, the yolk serves as the nutrient-rich food source for the potential developing embryo. Without fertilization, the yolk will not be used for embryonic development and will eventually be reabsorbed by the female bird’s body.

It’s important to note that not all bird species lay unfertilized eggs. Some bird species, such as certain reptiles, do not require fertilization to initiate embryo development. In these species, the eggs are laid with the potential to develop into embryos, regardless of whether or not they have been fertilized.

For more information on bird reproduction and the biology of eggs, visit the Audubon Society’s website.

Birds That Lay Unfertilized Eggs


Songbirds, also known as passerines, are a diverse group of birds that includes sparrows, finches, robins, and warblers. These small and colorful birds are known for their beautiful songs and intricate nests. Interestingly, most songbirds do lay unfertilized eggs.

This means that the eggs they lay are not fertilized by a male bird and will not develop into chicks. Instead, these unfertilized eggs serve as a way for female songbirds to regulate their hormones and maintain their reproductive health.

It is also worth noting that not all songbirds lay unfertilized eggs, as some species are known to engage in cooperative breeding where multiple birds help care for the eggs and chicks.

Waterfowl like ducks and geese

Waterfowl, such as ducks and geese, are well-known for their ability to lay large clutches of eggs. In the case of waterfowl, most of the eggs laid by females are fertilized. However, it is not uncommon for waterfowl to occasionally lay unfertilized eggs as well.

This can happen when a female fails to mate with a male or when the mating is unsuccessful. Unfertilized eggs laid by waterfowl are usually abandoned by the female, as they do not have the potential to develop into chicks.

It is fascinating to observe the nesting habits of waterfowl, as they often create nests in close proximity to water bodies and diligently incubate their eggs until they hatch.

Birds of prey like hawks and eagles

Birds of prey, such as hawks and eagles, are renowned for their impressive hunting abilities and keen eyesight. These majestic birds typically lay fertilized eggs, as the female mates with a male prior to egg-laying.

The fertilized eggs develop into chicks, which the parents fiercely protect and provide for until they are ready to leave the nest. However, it is not unheard of for birds of prey to lay unfertilized eggs in certain situations.

For example, if a female bird of prey is unable to find a suitable mate or if the mating attempt is unsuccessful, she may still lay eggs that will not develop into chicks. These unfertilized eggs are usually abandoned or may serve as a source of food for the parents or other animals in the ecosystem.

Birds That Don’t Lay Unfertilized Eggs

While it is true that most birds lay unfertilized eggs, there are certain species that do not follow this pattern. Chickens, turkeys, and quail are all examples of birds that do not lay unfertilized eggs.


Chickens are domesticated birds that are primarily raised for their eggs and meat. Unlike many other bird species, chickens do not lay unfertilized eggs. This means that every egg laid by a chicken has the potential to develop into a chick if it is fertilized.

However, in commercial egg production, most eggs are unfertilized as hens are typically not kept with roosters.


Similar to chickens, turkeys also do not lay unfertilized eggs. Every egg laid by a turkey has the potential to develop into a turkey chick. Turkeys are primarily raised for their meat, but their eggs are also consumed in some cultures.

Just like with chickens, turkeys require a male (tom) and a female (hen) for fertilization to occur.


Quail are small game birds that are known for their delicious eggs and meat. Unlike chickens and turkeys, quail do not lay unfertilized eggs. Each egg laid by a quail has the potential to develop into a quail chick if it is fertilized.

Quail eggs are popular in many cuisines and are often considered a delicacy due to their unique taste and appearance.

It’s important to note that the ability for these birds to lay fertilized eggs is dependent on the presence of a male for fertilization to occur. In commercial settings, where birds are kept solely for egg production, hens are often not kept with roosters, resulting in the majority of eggs being unfertilized.

Why Some Birds Don’t Lay Unfertilized Eggs

Egg formation requires mating

Unlike mammals, birds have a unique reproductive system where fertilization of eggs occurs externally. This means that for an egg to be fertilized, a male bird must mate with a female bird. The process of egg formation in birds begins with the release of an unfertilized egg from the ovary.

However, this unfertilized egg cannot develop into an embryo without the sperm from a male bird. Therefore, birds that do not have access to a mate or do not engage in mating behavior will not lay fertilized eggs.

Unfertilized eggs deplete calcium

Another reason why some birds don’t lay unfertilized eggs is related to the resources required for egg production. Producing eggs is an energetically demanding process that requires a significant amount of calcium.

Calcium is necessary for the formation of the eggshell, which provides protection and nutrients to the developing embryo. When a bird lays an unfertilized egg, it expends valuable calcium resources without the benefit of offspring.

This can be particularly detrimental for birds that have limited access to calcium-rich food sources.

It’s worth noting that not all bird species exhibit this behavior. Some birds, such as chickens, ducks, and geese, have been selectively bred for egg production and are known to lay unfertilized eggs regularly.

However, in the wild, many bird species have evolved to only lay fertilized eggs to maximize their reproductive success and conserve valuable resources.

For more information on bird reproduction and egg formation, you can visit and

The Egg-Laying Process in Birds

Birds, as a whole, are known for their ability to lay eggs. This reproductive process is unique to avian species and plays a crucial role in their life cycle. Understanding how eggs are formed, the role of hormones, and the process of oviposition can provide fascinating insights into the world of birds.

How eggs are formed

Egg formation in birds begins in the ovary, where tiny undeveloped eggs, called ova or oocytes, are produced. The number of ova present in the ovary varies among bird species. Once the ova reach maturity, they are released into the oviduct, a tube-like structure that plays a vital role in the formation of the egg.

As the ova pass through the oviduct, different regions of the tube add various components to the egg. The first part of the oviduct, known as the infundibulum, captures the released ova and is where fertilization occurs if a male bird has mated with the female.

However, not all birds lay fertilized eggs. Some species, like chickens, require fertilization for egg production, while others, such as pigeons or parrots, can lay unfertilized eggs.

Role of hormones

Hormones play a crucial role in the egg-laying process in birds. The pituitary gland and the ovary produce hormones that regulate the reproductive cycle. When a bird reaches sexual maturity, these hormonal changes trigger the development and release of the ova from the ovary.

One of the key hormones involved in egg production is estrogen, which stimulates the growth and development of the ova. Progesterone is another hormone that plays a role in the egg-laying process, particularly during the formation of the eggshell.

These hormones work together to prepare the ova for oviposition.

Oviposition – laying the egg

Oviposition is the final stage of the egg-laying process in birds. Once the egg is fully formed within the oviduct, it travels through the remaining parts of the tube for eventual expulsion. The muscles in the oviduct contract to push the egg towards the cloaca, a common opening for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems in birds.

When the egg reaches the cloaca, the bird goes into a squatting position, and the muscles in the cloaca contract to expel the egg. The entire process of oviposition usually takes a few minutes, and once the egg is laid, the female bird may proceed to incubate it or leave it in a safe location.

It is important to note that not all birds lay eggs in the same manner. Some birds, like songbirds, lay one egg at a time, while others, like ducks or geese, lay multiple eggs in a single clutch. Additionally, the size, shape, and color of eggs can vary greatly among different species of birds.

For more information on the egg-laying process in birds, you can visit reputable websites such as Audubon or All About Birds.


In summary, while most wild birds do lay unfertilized eggs as part of their normal reproductive cycle, some domesticated birds like chickens, turkeys and quail do not. Their bodies require mating and fertilization to form and lay eggs regularly.

The egg-laying process is complex, involving hormones like estrogen and the physical act of oviposition. So next time you crack open an egg, consider the fascinating biological process behind its creation!

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