Do Birds Eat Their Own Poop? Exploring Coprophagy In The Avian World

Bird droppings plastering your car or patio furniture are annoying enough without having to imagine birds snacking on their own feces. The very idea seems unappetizingly unhygienic and downright strange. But the question remains – do some species of birds actually consume their own waste?

To satisfy your curiosity: Yes, many birds do engage in coprophagy – the technical term for eating poop. However, it’s not driven by questionable taste. There are actually some valid biological reasons behind this unusual behavior, as we’ll explore.

What is Coprophagy and Why Do Animals Do It?

Coprophagy, also known as feces-eating, is the act of consuming fecal matter. While it may seem repulsive to us humans, coprophagy is surprisingly common in the animal kingdom, including birds. So, why do animals engage in this behavior?

Nutrient Recycling:

One of the main reasons animals practice coprophagy is for nutrient recycling. Fecal matter still contains undigested nutrients that can be valuable for survival. By consuming their own or others’ feces, animals can extract additional nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, from the waste material.

This allows them to make the most out of their food intake and increase their chances of survival in environments where resources may be scarce.

Gut Microbiome Development:

Coprophagy also plays a crucial role in maintaining a healthy gut microbiome. The gut microbiome refers to the community of microorganisms that reside in an animal’s digestive system. These microorganisms help with digestion, nutrient absorption, and even contribute to the animal’s overall immune function.

By consuming feces, animals can reintroduce these beneficial microorganisms into their digestive system, supporting a healthy gut microbiome.

Maternal Care and Offspring Survival:

In some cases, coprophagy is observed in animals as a form of maternal care. For instance, many bird species engage in feeding their chicks with regurgitated food, including partially digested fecal matter. This behavior serves multiple purposes.

Firstly, it provides the chicks with a source of nutrients that are necessary for their growth and development. Secondly, it helps establish and maintain the chicks’ gut microbiome, which is crucial for their overall health and survival.

Defense Mechanism:

Believe it or not, coprophagy can also serve as a defense mechanism for certain animals. Some species, like rabbits, have a unique digestive system that allows them to produce two types of fecal pellets: hard ones and soft ones.

The soft fecal pellets, also known as “cecotropes,” are immediately re-ingested by the animal. By consuming these cecotropes, the animal can extract additional nutrients and also prevent predators from tracking its scent from the hard fecal pellets.

It’s worth noting that while coprophagy is a natural behavior in many animals, it is not recommended for humans. Human feces can contain harmful pathogens and bacteria that can lead to serious health issues if ingested.

For more information on coprophagy and animal behavior, you can visit National Geographic or ScienceDirect.

Bird Species Known to Eat Poop

Birds are fascinating creatures with diverse feeding habits. While it may seem strange to us, there are indeed bird species that engage in coprophagy, the consumption of their own feces. Let’s explore some of these avian species:


Chickens are one of the most common domesticated bird species known to engage in coprophagy. While it might sound unpleasant, this behavior actually serves a purpose for them. Chickens have a highly efficient digestive system that allows them to extract all the necessary nutrients from their food.

By consuming their own droppings, chickens are able to reabsorb undigested food particles and maximize their nutrient intake.

Parrots and Parakeets

Parrots and parakeets are highly intelligent birds known for their ability to mimic human speech. These birds also exhibit coprophagy as part of their natural behavior. In the wild, parrots and parakeets consume their own feces in order to obtain essential gut bacteria and enzymes that aid in digestion.

This behavior is particularly important for these birds as they have a unique digestive system that relies on a specialized fermentation process.

Pigeons and Doves

Pigeons and doves are another group of bird species that engage in coprophagy. These birds have a habit of regurgitating a substance called “pigeon milk” to feed their young. This substance is produced in the crop, a specialized part of the bird’s digestive system.

Pigeons and doves consume their own droppings to replenish their crop with the necessary ingredients to produce pigeon milk.


Owls are known for their silent flight and incredible hunting skills. These nocturnal birds also engage in coprophagy, but their reasons for doing so are slightly different. Owls consume their own pellets, which are compacted indigestible materials such as bones, fur, and feathers.

By regurgitating and re-ingesting these pellets, owls are able to efficiently extract as many nutrients as possible from their prey.


Cassowaries are large flightless birds native to the rainforests of Australia and New Guinea. These fascinating birds are known for their vibrant appearance and unusual behaviors, including coprophagy.

Cassowaries consume their own feces as a means of obtaining additional nutrients, especially during times when food availability is limited.


Waterfowl, such as ducks and geese, are also known to engage in coprophagy. These birds have a unique digestive system that allows them to extract valuable nutrients from their food, including vegetation and small invertebrates.

By consuming their own droppings, waterfowl are able to reabsorb any undigested matter and maximize their nutrient intake.

While coprophagy may seem unusual to us, it serves an important purpose for these bird species. It allows them to extract every possible nutrient from their food and adapt to their unique environments.

So, the next time you see a bird engaging in this behavior, remember that it’s just their way of making the most out of their meal!

Motivations Explaining Avian Coprophagy

Avian coprophagy, the consumption of their own feces, may seem like a peculiar behavior to us humans, but it serves several important purposes for birds. Let’s explore some of the motivations behind this fascinating behavior.

Nutritional Needs

One of the primary reasons birds engage in coprophagy is to extract additional nutrients from their feces. After digestion, some essential nutrients pass through the bird’s digestive system without being fully absorbed.

By consuming their feces, birds have a second chance to extract these nutrients and maximize their nutritional intake. This is particularly crucial for species that have a diet low in certain essential nutrients.

Furthermore, the bacteria present in the bird’s gut play a vital role in breaking down complex substances. By consuming their feces, birds can reintroduce these beneficial bacteria into their digestive system, aiding in further digestion and nutrient absorption.

Instinctive Behavior

Coprophagy is not exclusive to birds; it is observed in various animal species. In the avian world, this behavior is believed to be instinctive, passed down through generations. It is thought that early bird species may have developed coprophagy as a survival mechanism when food resources were scarce.

By consuming their feces, birds can extract any undigested food particles and obtain some additional sustenance.

Additionally, coprophagy in birds could be related to the efficient use of energy. The process of digestion requires energy expenditure, and by recycling their feces, birds can conserve energy by reabsorbing certain nutrients.

Territorial Marking

In some bird species, coprophagy is thought to have a role in territorial marking. By consuming their feces, birds leave behind scent cues that signal their presence and ownership of a particular territory.

This behavior helps to establish and maintain boundaries, reducing the chances of conflicts with neighboring birds.

While the motivations behind avian coprophagy may seem unusual to us, they serve important functions in the world of birds. It is a fascinating adaptation that showcases the incredible diversity of behaviors found in the animal kingdom.

Potential Health Benefits vs Risks

While the idea of birds consuming their own poop may seem unappetizing to us, coprophagy, or the consumption of feces, actually serves some important purposes in the avian world. Let’s explore the potential health benefits and risks associated with this behavior.

Reingesting B Vitamins

One potential health benefit of coprophagy in birds is the reingestion of B vitamins. Birds are known to have a unique digestive system that allows them to extract essential nutrients from their food efficiently.

However, during the digestion process, some vitamins, particularly B vitamins, may not be fully absorbed. By consuming their own feces, birds have the opportunity to extract these valuable vitamins, ensuring their bodies receive the necessary nutrients for optimal health.

According to a study conducted by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), coprophagy in birds has been found to be particularly important for obtaining vitamin B12, which is essential for various bodily functions, including the production of red blood cells and the maintenance of a healthy nervous system.

This reingestion process can be especially crucial for birds that have a limited dietary source of B vitamins.

Seeding Gut Bacteria

Another potential health benefit of coprophagy in birds is the seeding of gut bacteria. The digestive tract of birds is home to a complex microbial community that plays a vital role in their overall health and well-being.

Consuming their own feces allows birds to introduce beneficial bacteria into their digestive system, aiding in the breakdown and digestion of food.

A study published by Elsevier highlights the importance of gut bacteria in birds, stating that these microorganisms assist in the fermentation of plant material and the synthesis of essential nutrients.

By practicing coprophagy, birds can maintain a healthy balance of gut bacteria, which contributes to their overall digestive efficiency and immune system function.

Disease Transmission Concerns

While there are potential health benefits associated with coprophagy, there are also risks to consider, particularly in terms of disease transmission. Feces can contain harmful pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites, that can pose a threat to the health of birds.

It is important to note that not all birds engage in coprophagy, and the prevalence of this behavior varies among species. Some birds, such as pigeons and geese, are more commonly observed practicing coprophagy, whereas others may not exhibit this behavior at all.

According to the Audubon Society, there is a potential risk of disease transmission when birds consume feces from other individuals or species. This can occur when contaminated feces contain pathogens that are then ingested by the consuming bird.

However, it is worth mentioning that this risk can be minimized by practicing good hygiene and maintaining clean living environments for birds.

Other Interesting Poop-Related Bird Behaviors

Fecal Sacs

One fascinating behavior exhibited by certain bird species is the use of fecal sacs. These are specialized structures that some birds, such as songbirds, use to contain their nestlings’ waste. The parent bird will carefully remove the fecal sacs from the nest and dispose of them elsewhere, reducing the risk of attracting predators or disease to the nest.

This behavior not only ensures a cleaner and healthier environment for the nestlings but also helps to maintain the overall cleanliness of the nest.


Another intriguing behavior observed in some bird species is coprodeglutition, which is the act of consuming their own feces. While it may sound unappetizing to us humans, coprodeglutition serves several important purposes for these birds.

By ingesting their own feces, birds can extract any undigested nutrients that may still be present. This process allows them to maximize their nutrient intake and make the most of their food resources.

Additionally, coprodeglutition can help birds maintain a healthy gut flora, aiding in digestion and preventing the growth of harmful bacteria.


Urohidrosis is a unique behavior observed in certain bird species, particularly raptors. It involves the deliberate defecation on their legs, specifically the tarsi, where the droppings are then spread using the bird’s feet. This behavior may seem puzzling at first, but it serves a practical purpose.

By spreading their droppings on their legs, birds can cool themselves down on hot days. The evaporation of the droppings helps to dissipate heat, acting as a natural cooling mechanism. This behavior is especially beneficial for birds of prey that spend long hours perched in the sun.

Did you know? According to a study published in the Journal of Avian Biology, researchers found that some bird species actively modify the odor of their feces to deter predators. By choosing specific plants to consume, these birds can alter the scent of their droppings, making them less attractive to potential predators.

These intriguing behaviors highlight the incredible adaptability and resourcefulness of birds in their natural environments. While coprophagy may not be the most appealing topic, it is fascinating to explore the various ways in which birds have evolved to make the most of their waste.


To many people, coprophagy seems disgusting and perplexing. However, for many species of birds, consuming their own nutrient-rich feces has potential digestive and health benefits that outweigh the risks. While an unusual behavior, it’s one grounded in sound biology and instinct.

By understanding the facts around avian coprophagy, we gain appreciation for the diverse and complex behaviors of our feathered friends. Next time you see birds brazenly snacking on poop, you’ll view them with less judgment and more fascination!

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