Gold Buffalo Vs Gold Eagle Coins: Key Differences Compared

With gold coin investing rising in popularity, many buyers consider the major U.S. minted gold coins like the Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle. But what sets these iconic gold coins apart? In this comprehensive guide, we’ll compare and contrast the Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins across specs, pricing, investment value, security features, and more.

If you’re short on time, here’s a quick overview: The main differences are that the Gold Buffalo has a higher gold purity content (9999 vs. 9167), the Gold Eagle has more sophisticated anti-counterfeiting measures, and the Gold Buffalo tends to have a slightly higher collectible numismatic value whereas the Gold Eagle trades closer to its gold melt value.

By the end of this 3000 word in-depth comparison, you’ll understand all the key distinctions between the American Gold Buffalo and the American Gold Eagle coins to determine which gold coin investment is better for your portfolio.

Background and Origins

When the Coins Were First Minted

The American Gold Eagle and American Gold Buffalo coins were first minted in the mid-2000s as part of an effort by the U.S. Mint to offer investors and collectors more options for owning physical gold in coin form.

The popular American Eagle Gold bullion coins had been around since 1986, but the Mint wanted to expand its gold coin offerings.

The Gold Buffalo coin debuted in 2006 as the first-ever 24-karat gold coin from the U.S. Mint. It was made possible by the Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005, which authorized the production of a new 24-karat gold coin that carried the legal tender value of $50.

The Gold Eagle joined the American Eagle program in 2006 as a 22-karat gold coin with face values of $5, $10, $25, and $50.

Why the Coins Were Launched

The main driver behind the release of the Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins was rising public demand for physical gold in the early 2000s. With inflation concerns on the rise and the price of gold climbing, many investors wanted to add gold coins to their portfolios.

The U.S. Mint responded by providing two new gold coin options sourced from American gold reserves.

In addition, the Mint saw an opportunity to modernize its gold coin offerings. The Gold Buffalo gave investors a 24-karat gold option for the first time, providing the purest gold content available in coin form.

The Gold Eagle offered a more durable 22-karat version well-suited for circulation and handling compared to the soft 24k Gold Buffalo.

Minting Volumes Over the Years

Minting numbers for the two gold coins have fluctuated annually based on gold demand trends:

  • Gold Buffalo coins peaked in 2006 with over 300,000 minted. Volumes dropped off over the next decade, down to just 10,000 coins in 2015.
  • Gold Eagle coins saw steadier demand, with between 140,000-230,000 minted most years. The peak was in 2009 during the financial crisis when total mintage hit nearly 1.5 million.

More recently, Gold Buffalo minting has picked up again, reflecting renewed investor appetite for gold. 67,500 coins were produced in 2018 and 130,500 in 2021. Gold Eagle volumes moderated but remain robust, averaging around 110,000 per year since 2019.

Specifications Comparison


Both the Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins are made of 24-karat gold, which means they have a purity of 99.99%. This makes them some of the purest gold coins available in the market. The high purity level ensures that the coins retain their value and are highly sought after by collectors and investors alike.

Gold Content and Weight

The Gold Buffalo coin contains 1 troy ounce of gold, whereas the Gold Eagle coin is available in four different sizes: 1/10, 1/4, 1/2, and 1 troy ounce. This gives investors and collectors more options when it comes to the gold content and weight they prefer.

Diameter and Thickness

The Gold Buffalo coin has a diameter of 32.7 mm and a thickness of 2.95 mm. On the other hand, the Gold Eagle coin has varying diameters and thicknesses depending on the size. For example, the 1/10 oz Gold Eagle has a diameter of 16.5 mm and a thickness of 1.19 mm, while the 1 oz Gold Eagle has a diameter of 32.7 mm and a thickness of 2.87 mm.

Face Value vs Melt Value

One of the key differences between the Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins is their face value. The Gold Buffalo has a face value of $50, while the Gold Eagle has face values of $5, $10, $25, and $50, depending on the size.

However, it’s important to note that the face value of these coins is largely symbolic and does not reflect their true worth. The melt value, which is the value of the gold content, is what matters most to investors and collectors.

It’s important to consider these specifications when choosing between the Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins. Ultimately, the decision will depend on individual preferences and investment goals.

Pricing and Premium Analysis

Current Gold Spot Price

When comparing the pricing of Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins, it is essential to consider the current gold spot price. The spot price refers to the current market value of one troy ounce of gold. This price is determined by various factors such as supply and demand, economic conditions, and geopolitical events.

Investors and collectors should keep an eye on the spot price as it fluctuates throughout the day. Websites like Kitco and Bloomberg provide real-time updates on the gold spot price, allowing individuals to make informed decisions.

Collectible Premium Factors

In addition to the gold spot price, collectible premium factors play a crucial role in the pricing of Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins. These factors include rarity, condition, historical significance, and demand among collectors.

Coins with lower mintages or those in pristine condition often command higher premiums. Moreover, special editions or coins with unique designs can also increase their collectible value. Collectors should consider these factors when determining the overall price of these coins.

Breakdown of Price Components

To better understand the pricing differences between Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins, it is helpful to break down the components that contribute to their overall price. These components include the gold content, production costs, and dealer premiums.

Both coins contain one troy ounce of gold, which accounts for the majority of their value. However, production costs, such as minting and packaging, can vary between the two coins. Additionally, dealer premiums, which cover the cost of distribution and profit margins, can also differ.

Comparing these components can provide insight into the pricing variations between the Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins.

Historic Pricing Differences

Over time, the pricing differences between Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins have fluctuated. Factors such as market demand, economic conditions, and collector preferences can influence these variations.

It is interesting to note that historically, Gold Eagle coins have often carried higher premiums due to their longer-standing presence in the market and wider recognition among collectors. However, it is important to note that past performance does not guarantee future results.

Therefore, investors and collectors should carefully analyze the current market conditions and individual coin characteristics before making purchasing decisions.

Investment Value Evaluation

When considering the investment value of Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins, there are several factors that should be taken into account. Let’s explore these key differences in more detail:

Melt Value and Intrinsic Gold Value

Both Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins are made of 24-karat gold, meaning they have a purity of 99.99%. However, Gold Buffalo coins are slightly heavier, containing one ounce of gold, while Gold Eagle coins contain slightly less, at 0.9167 ounces.

As a result, the melt value and intrinsic gold value of Gold Buffalo coins are slightly higher compared to Gold Eagle coins.


While both coins are popular among collectors, Gold Buffalo coins often have a higher collectibility factor due to their historical significance and limited mintages. The design of the Gold Buffalo, featuring the iconic Native American and buffalo motifs, adds to its appeal among collectors.

Supply and Demand Dynamics

The supply and demand dynamics of Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins can also impact their investment value. Gold Buffalo coins have a limited annual mintage, which can create scarcity in the market and potentially increase their value over time.

On the other hand, Gold Eagle coins have a higher annual mintage, which may affect their scarcity and potential for value appreciation.

Investor Sentiment

Investor sentiment and market trends can also play a role in determining the investment value of Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins. Some investors may prefer the classic design and historical significance of Gold Buffalo coins, while others may prefer the widely recognized and trusted Gold Eagle coins.

Ultimately, the investment value of these coins can be influenced by the preferences and confidence of investors in the market.

It’s important to keep in mind that the investment value of Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins can fluctuate based on various factors, such as the current price of gold, market conditions, and investor demand.

Therefore, conducting thorough research and consulting with a trusted financial advisor is recommended before making any investment decisions.

Anti-Counterfeiting Features

When it comes to purchasing gold coins, one of the main concerns for investors and collectors is the risk of counterfeit coins. Both the Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins have implemented various anti-counterfeiting features to ensure the authenticity of their products.

Mint Applied Features

Both the Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins have incorporated mint applied features to deter counterfeiting. The United States Mint, responsible for producing the Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins, utilizes advanced technology and techniques to create unique designs and intricate details that are difficult to replicate.

These mint applied features include micro-engraved security marks, laser etching, and textured surfaces that add an extra layer of security.

For example, the Gold Buffalo coins feature a unique reeded edge with a small “W” mint mark that can only be seen under magnification. This hidden security feature makes it easier for experts to identify genuine coins and spot any counterfeits in circulation.

Design Elements

Another key difference between the Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins lies in their design elements, which also serve as anti-counterfeiting measures. The Gold Buffalo coins showcase a design inspired by James Earle Fraser’s iconic Buffalo Nickel, featuring a Native American chief on the obverse and an American buffalo on the reverse.

The intricate details and high relief of the design make it more challenging for counterfeiters to reproduce accurately.

On the other hand, the Gold Eagle coins feature a design that combines Augustus Saint-Gaudens’ Liberty design on the obverse and Miley Busiek’s family of eagles on the reverse. The complex design elements, such as the intricate feathers and fine details of the eagles, make it difficult for counterfeiters to replicate successfully.

Frequency of Fakes

While both the Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins have implemented robust anti-counterfeiting features, it is important to note that the frequency of fake coins in circulation may vary. The popularity and demand for Gold Eagle coins make them a more common target for counterfeiters.

However, the United States Mint continuously works to improve their security measures and stay ahead of counterfeiters.

It is always advised to purchase gold coins from reputable sources, such as authorized dealers or directly from the United States Mint, to ensure the authenticity of the coins. Additionally, familiarizing oneself with the specific anti-counterfeiting features of the chosen coin can help buyers identify genuine coins and avoid falling victim to counterfeit scams.

For more information on the anti-counterfeiting features of Gold Buffalo and Gold Eagle coins, you can visit the official website of the United States Mint.


When weighing the American Gold Buffalo vs the Gold Eagle coins, the higher gold purity content and collectibility of the Gold Buffalo gets balanced out by the stronger anti-counterfeiting tech and greater liquidity of the Gold Eagle.

Both remain excellent gold coin options. So compare your personal priorities like purity, premiums, security, collectibility and make the choice that best suits your investment objectives.

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